Category: Education (page 1 of 6)

Helping Students Develop a Unique Mindset and the Ability to Think Critically is the Calling of Every Teacher

Effectively motivating your students and providing them with engaging educational programs and activities is at the forefront of every teacher’s mind. However, it would not be beneficial to teach them so that they are unable to learn on their own. Teachers should obviously aid in a student’s learning, but also help in the development of a unique mindset and the ability to think for oneself, thus being able to learn outside of just a classroom setting.

Doing this can be somewhat challenging, as you’ll essentially have to “fool” them into taking part in activities that almost force education. This, however, sounds much harsher than what you can actually do. Inspire unique thought by asking open ended questions and encouraging all to take part in a discussion. Assign projects that require students to combine their current sets of skills with new ones learned over time. Develop a framework within your regular teaching schedule that does not take away from current methods, but adds a twist to them every now and then.

One great way to develop unique mindsets in the classroom is to ask your students to theorize something. This can be done over a short or long period of time in which their theories may prove true, or false. Have them test and modify these stances as things progress. This is a great activity to expand one’s knowledge and learn that a theory is just that; something that can be proven false no matter how passionate one feels about it.

Encourage reading, but do not demand it. Younger students are often forced to read, whether it be sections of a science book, or a certain number of chapters in a fictional work. This poses the risk of creating disdain towards the idea, making children and young adults unwilling to read during their own time. While certain activities and classwork will require reading to some extent, explain the benefits of doing so on your own. Allowing your students to read without any external pressure can do wonders for their classroom engagement in addition to improving brain power.

Create activities in which your students must work together to achieve an end goal. Collaboration is a great way to learn one’s own value in any given situation. Rather than creating some type of hierarchy, assign equal roles and allow your students to enjoy their unique value applied to the task at hand; another great strategy in building confidence as well.

Teach them to embrace any mistakes made. Almost no task will be done perfectly throughout their education, and that is perfectly acceptable. It’s an age-old saying that holds true merit: “Everybody makes mistakes.” To discredit yourself because of any type of mistake is to demean your own worth. Teach your students to make these mistakes without pointing any fingers, and explain the benefits of allowing oneself to stride through missed opportunities. To dwell on a mistake provides no value, but they should learn from any made.

Though these are just a few strategies you can introduce to your students to help them develop unique mindsets, they can be extremely valuable both in, and outside of the classroom. As Alice Wellington Rollins once said, “The test of a good teacher is not how many questions he can ask his pupils that they will answer readily, but how many questions he inspires them to ask him which he finds it hard to answer.”

Education Research: What to Know for the New Year

Educators and those within the education industry are well aware of the constant changes and innovations that occur on a yearly basis. New studies may be released promoting certain teaching strategies as opposed to others, or detailing the types of environments children seem to thrive in that contradict a traditional setting. Regardless, professionals with years of experience under their belts understand the most important aspects, and those that are the most truthful. Below are a few findings Chalkbeat has compiled that all educators should take with them heading into 2018.


Teacher Certifications Come with Ramifications


Vetting teachers before hiring is obviously a crucial aspect of the employment process in education. However, overly strict rules often limit adequate, trustworthy teachers from joining, and thus benefiting the school they wish to work at. Similarly, certifications exclude teachers of color, which is often extremely detrimental in the sense that students of color have been shown to benefit more from educators of the same ethnicity.


Another downside of certifications is that they are often state-regulated, which means teachers are very limited in terms of where they want to teach. While it may be rare for an educator to move across states, the option should always exist. Certifications effectively render that impractical.


Unions may not be beneficial


Steven Virgadamo, with 35 plus years involved in implementing school improvement programs in nearly all 50 states, believes that having a group of educators more interested in protecting their jobs can sometimes be counterproductive to student performance, unless of course job security is tied directly to student test performance. The needs of the students and their families should never be placed secondary to the needs of the teachers.


State Tests Show Results


Mandatory statewide testing has always been seen as a somewhat controversial practice, but they have been shown to provide results. The University of Chicago found that students who took state tests later showed improved grades, a higher acceptance rate among colleges, and a consistent college tenure. But, with more testing came more displeased students, suggesting that teachers who may be great at improving test scores may lack in providing a happier educational environment.


Staying ahead of the curve in educational trends can be difficult, but knowing what works best, and what has worked in the past can equip teachers with the necessary tools to help their students succeed, as well as improve their personal teaching methods.

The Catholic Church in the US

Some say the Catholic Church is in decline and yet others say it is a Church in hospice. It is true the U.S. Church has experienced about a 3% decline in the last ten years confirmed by two massive PEW studies … and a decline in religious vocations, but don’t be too quick to rush to judgement without carefully considering the data. Most of the Church closures are old inner-city parishes where the demographics are changing. Many of these inner city parishes were established in close proximity in the late 1800’s as each was founded to minister to a particular immigrant population – Irish – Italian – Polish etc. Today, 49% of Catholic adults have a graduate college degree, make an above average income and very few experience protracted periods of unemployment. And, most do not live in the inner cities.

Catholics in the suburban parishes are doing just fine … and there has been no aggregate decline in the number of baptized Catholics who routinely attend Mass in the last 50 years. All these demographics correlate neatly with Catholic fertility rates … the aggregate baptized Catholic population fluctuates over decades between 23% to 27% of the U.S. population.

Catholic schools continue to maintain a presence in the inner cities to serve the urban poor and often the new immigrant population because they are Catholic and education is a path to breaking a cycle of poverty.

Spring and Getting Your Students Outside

If you are a teacher feeling the strain of third quarter and searching for the elusive fourth quarter of your school year to arrive, there is hope. Although you have been trapped inside with your students, the spring weather gives you opportunity to get your students outside, either during class projects or for homework. Here are ten outdoor assignments, categorized by subject matter, that both teachers and students can enjoy:


English Language Arts


  1. Write haiku poems which are usually about elements of nature. A haiku is a succinct style of poetry that should have only three lines and include exactly five, seven and then five syllables per line.
  2. Try poetry written in the imagist style to capture specific, simple pieces of nature. This assignment works especially well when studying American Literature because of the origins and history of imagism.
  3. Practice using descriptive language and literary devices to describe the outdoor setting. Teachers could require students to include their observations from all five senses and to use a set number of similes, metaphors, onomatopoeias, alliteration and symbolism.




  1. Search for unique rocks, and then categorize them as igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic. Teachers could encourage a chart or table be designed and presented.
  2. Teach students how to safely catch and preserve or to catch and release insects; then practice classifying each insect based on its taxonomy.
  3. Ask for observations in a journal or report that describe the habitat of squirrels, birds or other animals in the area. This assignment could also include students classifying the animals or studying the entire ecosystem.




  1. For preschool classes, help students collect a designated number of rocks and leaves with which to practice counting.
  2. For elementary classes, ask students to gather a certain number of items, then practice adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing the assortments during whole-group instruction. You could also demonstrate using fractions with their outdoor collections.


Social Studies


  1. Assign students a diorama showing their grasp of a historical event, and have them make a list of supplies they need; then go outside to gather a portion of their supplies.
  2. Have older students observe others at a park and report back on social structure, group behavior, gender roles and social norms. Adapt this exercise as needed for various sociology and psychology topics.


Indeed, springtime provides a unique season for students to explore and learn hands-on. Perhaps you are a teacher trying to engage students who learn best in a kinesthetic or tactile way; here’s your chance to add to your typical lessons and interest students even more. Encourage your students’ development by trying these creative and fun academic exercises.


Avoiding Teacher Burnout

It is estimated that 15.7 percent of teachers leave their jobs every year. Burnout is one of the top reasons that people quit their jobs. Fortunately, teacher burnout is something that can be prevented.


Take Care Of Your Health

Being a teacher can be physically and emotionally demanding. Fortunately, you can prepare your body for these demands by taking care of your health. Make sure that you eat a nutritious breakfast, lunch and dinner every day. Try to sleep for seven to eight hours every night. Additionally, you should schedule at least 30 minutes of exercise in your day.


Maintain Your Social Life

Many people completely devote themselves to teaching. They spend all day in the classroom. When they go home, they spend all of their time planning for the next day. While teaching will take up a lot of your time, it is important for you to maintain your social life. Devoting all of your time to teaching will eventually lead to burnout.

Hang out with your family members and friends. Plan a weekend trip every now and then. Spending time with the people you love will help you recharge and focus.


Have Fun With Your Class

Teachers do not have to be serious all of the time. Making learning fun will make things better for you and your students. Sharing stories, brain teasers and puzzles are great ways for students to have fun while they are learning. In fact, many students get more out of stories, puzzles and brain teasers than they do out of long lectures.


Find Support

Sometimes, all you need is the support of your co-workers, family members and friends. They can help guide you and tell you about what you need to do to alleviate your stress. Your support team can also help you complete some of your daily tasks.


Set Limits

As a teacher, you may feel as though you have to complete everything on your to-do list. However, it is okay to say no sometimes. Do not feel obligated to take on additional tasks that you know that you do not have the time to do. If you have too much on your plate, then tell someone. Setting limits is one of the best ways to avoid burnout.


Teachers have a time-consuming and demanding profession. That is why teacher burnout may seem inevitable. Fortunately, taking the time to properly plan and care for yourself will help you avoid burnout.

Raising Catholic Kids

In a world filled with chaos, it’s important to make certain that your children are raised with Catholic beliefs. The traditional church has been around for many years, and Catholicism continues to be a prominent religion in the country and the world. Although it isn’t easy to live a devoutly Catholic life, it is important to give your children the ability to make proper decisions based upon the teaching of Jesus Christ.

One of the hardest concepts for children to understand is that their religion somewhat defines who they are. There are churches popping up all over the place that are typically more technologically advanced and upbeat, so these churches definitely attract new people. Some of the teachings at these churches may be different than the Catholic faith, so you must raise your children with the proper respect and knowledge for other people and religions.

When parenting your child in the faith, you need to become involved in the church yourself. Take the time to volunteer to show your child how important it is to help the church to succeed. As a giver of your time and talents, your child will better understand that the church is more than a building, it is a community.

You should also take the time to teach your child about the sacraments, what they mean, and when he or she will receive each one. This gives your child something to work for and look forward to. This religion is rooted in tradition, and that can make it difficult for children to truly enjoy mass and religious education classes, but preparing for sacraments and acknowledgement definitely help children stay the course.

Parenting your children in the ways of the faith helps them to understand morality. Many parishioners cannot recite every book of the bible, but they usually understand the meaning of being a Christian better than anyone. The children take the time to study the analogies that Jesus made for God throughout his life. Every parable tells a story. If you really want your child to appreciate the faith, you should dissect these stories down to the most basic principles.

Make certain that your child participates fully with Sunday school classes and takes the time to do something special for others. Helping at a food pantry, getting church prepared, or even altar serving are great ways for kids to learn more about the work they’re doing for God.

Parenting is a difficult job, but you can survive it all with the help of the church. It can be difficult for your children to abide by the rules of the church, but hold them accountable because they will be better adults than you ever imagined. Peer pressure can make things difficult, but you have your parish family there for you when you need them.

Read more about your religion, get involved with your children at church, and donate weekly to teach your kids the value of the sacrifice that Jesus made for us.

Pope Francis Stands for Family and Education

The New York Times recently had an Op-Ed piece asking “Has Pope Francis Failed?”  There was enough response to the contrary of the Op-Ed that there was a follow-up piece asking “Has Pope Francis Helped Reform The Church?” Listing several reader’s responses  including this one:

“Re “Has Pope Francis Failed?” (Op-Ed, Sept. 28):

Matthew Schmitz feels that Pope Francis is a failure because he has failed to “speak of the way hard disciplines can lead to freedom.” He longs for another, different, better pope who would hew to the Catholic Church’s fundamental doctrines.

But Mr. Schmitz fails to see that mercy, the great theme of Francis’ papacy, is not only hard, but that it is also the most fundamental of Jesus’ teachings. Pope Francis’ greatest failure would be not to recognize that.


New York

The writer, a Jesuit priest, is editor at large for America magazine.”

While there are many ways to feel about Pope Francis and the stance that he has taken, there is nothing left to the imagination when it comes to the strength of His Holiness’ words on family and Catholic education, topics clearly close to my heart.

One of the greatest things about Pope Francis is that he addresses the issues of the world which the elite try to hide through their power. He turns to the world and tells how the few people, with the power of money, have been able to turn education into a business. It has become limited to a few “supermen” who gain access to it with the power of money.

The most beautiful thing which has been pointed out by him involves the lack of spirituality which is being promoted by the current curriculum. People are deviating from the path of empathy and compassion which forms the core of the religion. The dimension of transcendence is being eliminated with people driving their focus away from faith.

He said, “We must prepare hearts so the Lord can manifest himself.” This is the thing which the modern education misses: making people realize the power of faith, incorporating in them the love for humanity, and strengthening the bonds of love and friendship.

He points out the confusion which people have between teaching religion and teaching values which will help in restoring the lost affection between people. The basic purpose of education is to bring people more towards humanity and teach them how to live tolerantly in the society. Unfortunately, the modern educational standards are working in exactly the opposite direction.

Supposedly, education was supposed to eliminate hierarchy from the general public but in reality, it is dividing the society into classes. Pope has said that this education is creating distances between the rich and the poor and even between different cultures. This is alarming because it is leading the world towards extreme divisions.

Pope Francis talks about humanity more than he talks about religion which makes him stand out and likable by people belonging to a different race, cultures, and parts of the world. He attributes this inclination towards modern education a fault of parents as well who are reluctant to send their children to catholic schools. Actually, the catholic schools focus on not only imparting education but also on the character building of its students. The parents fail to miss this part and find that the contemporary education is better for their children because supposedly, a child from a catholic school will not be able to have a successful career.

All these notions are false. 99 percent of students of a catholic school graduate high school and 85 percent of them attend college and come out with degrees in their hands. The added quality in them is that they pray daily and hold love for the humanity and the people surrounding them.

With the world facing so much threat just because of the hatred of a few, it has become essential that the rest must work on loving each other a lot more than they did before. This will help in standing together against all the odds. The foremost thing to do in this regard is to promote the uniformity of education and incorporate spiritual, humane values in it as well.

Steve Virgadamo Selected to Launch the Entrepreneurial Leadership Series at New York’s Fordham University

This is a press release, and can be found at

New York, NY, October 14, 2016 –(– Fordham University – the Jesuit University of New York – selected Steve Virgadamo to launch the 2016-2017 Entrepreneurial Leadership Series. The invitation only Leadership Series sponsored by Fordham University will focus on Leading through Crisis. Dr. Gerald Cattaro, Director of the Fordham Center for School leadership said: “It is always easy to find spirituality during times of joy, but leaders are called to seek grace and strength during times of crisis and sorrow as well.”

Steven Virgadamo a long time advocate of school choice is an expert in managing and leading schools, colleges and universities through dynamic planning processes. On November 4, 2016, Virgadamo will be at the Fordham Lincoln Center Campus to speak with hundreds of Board Members as well as the Chief Executive Officers and the Chief Operation Officers representing hundreds of schools from throughout the United States. Virgadamo said his talk entitled Planning to Avert Crisis is designed to not only provide practical tools but to inspire hope and feed the spirit of passionate leaders committed to educational reform.

Mr. Virgadamo will bring insight to the Fordham Entrepreneurial Series as he was one of the VIP delegates from the United States invited by the Vatican Congregation to participate in the World Congress on Catholic Education in 2015. For more than 30 years, has worked directly with thousands of Catholic schools both within the continental United States and abroad. In 2012, the Alliance for Catholic Education Program at the University of Notre Dame tapped him to consult with Bishops and Catholic School Superintendents throughout the United States to initiate overall school improvement plans. In 2014, he was invited to return to his New York City roots where he is currently contributing to the architectural re-engineering of the Catholic School System in the Archdiocese of New York.

Don’t Give Up on Our Catholic Schools

Superintendents and the National Catholic Educational Association respond to “Reinventing Catholic Schools”

Note: This post is originally from America Magazine.

“Reinventing Catholic Schools,” by Charles Zech (8/29), is accompanied by a photo of the entrance to a large, run down building with broken windows. The picture reflects the bleak message of the entire piece, which fails to mention the incredible work being done in Catholic schools across the country today. As the superintendents of Catholic schools and members of the National Catholic Educational Association, we work each and every day in schools that look nothing like what the author describes.

Are there challenges in Catholic schools today? Of course. But there were also challenges 50 years ago. The religious who built and served Catholic schools for generations were heroes and saints, and we are honored to stand on their shoulders working with these hallowed institutions. And as people of faith, we believe that God has chosen us and those who work hard every day in Catholic schools across the country to serve at this time.

Professor Zech writes, “It is no longer good stewardship on the part of Catholic dioceses and parishes to continue supporting the old model of Catholic parochial schools.” This implies that those dedicated servants who sacrifice and work daily in these institutions, along with students and families, are wasting church resources. We see funds spent on Catholic schools as an investment in children and the future of the church. The idea of stewardship is to return with increase to the Lord, and research consistently demonstrates that graduates of Catholic schools are among the most academically prepared, generous and civically engaged.

Professor Zech writes that “over time the Catholic population has migrated to the suburbs and increasingly to the South and West…. But the parishes and parochial school buildings still tend to be located in urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest.” In fact, there are already many thriving Catholic schools and parishes in the South and West. Their growth is driven by young, mostly immigrant families who desire a Catholic school education. To give up on these vital institutions would be akin to eliminating Catholic schools in the Northeast 100 years ago when they provided the foundation that allowed Irish, Italian, Polish and other immigrant populations to work their way up in U.S. society. The same work, with the same goal, continues today.

We encourage Professor Zech to visit Catholic schools across the country to see the incredible innovations taking place. These include dual-language immersion, an increase in services to students with special needs, work-study schools like the Cristo Rey Network and ever-increasing support from the community—not only the Catholic community but local communities that understand the value of Catholic schools.

The true story of Catholic schools in the United States is their continued success despite difficulties and their ability to overcome challenges. Catholic schools continue to outperform public and private schools and do a particularly effective job with low-income, minority students. Professor Zech writes that “many urban parochial schools find themselves serving a population that struggles to afford parochial school tuition. Many of these students are not Catholic.” This again indicates a lack of understanding of Catholic schools, especially in the West, where the urban population is largely Catholic. Shuttering schools that serve low-income populations, preserving only those that serve the suburban well-off, contradicts our vital mission to provide a “preferential option for the poor.” Affordability of our schools is a substantial challenge, even while our schools attempt to maintain a relatively low cost of tuition. The momentum of the school choice movement has greatly assisted our families; to date, 27 states and the District of Columbia have some form of parental choice program, and the trend is toward greater levels of public funding support.

To further provide assistance to those low-income families, there is tremendous philanthropic support and great partnerships, from the Catholic Education Foundation in Los Angeles to the Catholic Schools Foundation in Boston and so many more. The value of our schools is perhaps most evident in weekly giving from our Catholic parishioners, many of whom do not have school-age children of their own, who give selflessly to their local parishes knowing that they are supporting Catholic school education, which brings life and vitality to our parishes.

If, as Professor Zech states, the issue of a lack of Catholic giving is such a significant limitation, we should focus on that cause rather than the effect of reduced funds for ministries. Catholic schools are a ministry and continue to be one of the church’s most effective instruments for passing on the faith from one generation to the next.

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That might be the best argument against what Professor Zech proposes. Converting Catholic schools, which infuse the faith throughout the curriculum and the school day, to charter schools would change the essential character of the institutions. There is no such thing as a Catholic charter school. Surely, public charter schools try to mimic Catholic schools with character education and uniforms, but there is not a character education program or a values-based curriculum that compares to teaching the faith. If Catholic schools disappear in great numbers, parishes will not be far behind.

Catholic schools should be seen by all the faithful as a vital component to passing on the faith. Yes, there is a need to investigate alternative structures and models, but it is certainly not the time to give up or propose simplistic one-size-fits-all solutions. While there are problems, there are also real solutions—solutions that are being implemented across the country and that reflect a focus on growth, not resignation to decline. We are moving away from the hospice mentality to a growth mindset that is optimistic in its approach to growth. We are entering a genuine renaissance period in Catholic education, as evidenced by innovative programming, a surge of enrollment in certain regions and renewed confidence for the future.

Every day the 150,000 Catholic school educators in the country, supported by pastors, superintendents, bishops and the National Catholic Educational Association, teach and form students because they believe in Catholic education. We welcome Professor Zech and his colleagues from the Villanova Church Leadership Roundtable to visit with us and any of our Catholic schools to see the great work being done.

Kevin Baxter, Ed.D.
Senior Director and Superintendent of Catholic Schools
Archdiocese of Los Angeles

Debra Brillante
Superintendent for Elementary Schools
Archdiocese of Philadelphia

Thomas W. Burnford, D.Min.
National Catholic Educational Association

Susan M. Gibbons
Director of Educational Services, Superintendent of Catholic Schools
Archdiocese of Cincinnati

Christopher Knight
Secretary for Catechetical Formation and Education/Superintendent of Schools
Diocese of Cleveland

Dr. Jan Daniel Lancaster
Superintendent of Catholic Schools
Archdiocese of New Orleans

Dr. Timothy J. McNiff
Superintendent of Schools
Archdiocese of New York

Christopher Mominey
Chief Operating Officer and Secretary for Education
Archdiocese of Philadelphia

Kurt Nelson, Ph.D.
Superintendent of Catholic Education
Archdiocese of St. Louis

Jim Rigg, Ph.D.
Superintendent of Catholic Schools
Archdiocese of Chicago

Keeping Kids Healthy in the New School Year

It’s that time again, with summer’s days dwindling and back-to-school items stocked on the shelves. As an educator, keep in mind the health of you and your students as you plan for the upcoming school year. As a parent, you prepare for fall clothes and school supplies to send your child into the new school year prepared, it’s vital to remember your child’s health as part of the complete package, along with faith and education.


Not only should parents schedule the child for their annual physical before the start of the new school year, it is important to remember that health education is equally taught and implemented at home, and should start before sending your kids out to classrooms full of germs. And for teachers and faculty, you know how often you can get sick or have children out with illness during the fall and winter months. So for both parents and educators, here are some health tips to start out the new school year:


Parents and Teachers: Stay positive. When cold and flu season is upon us, so are shorter days, cooler weather, and the potential onset of the winter blues and cabin fever. A good attitude is important for mental and physical health. A gratitude journal can be a great idea, and keep godliness in mind as well as thankfulness for the blessings around you. This is a practice that teachers, parents, and children can benefit from. From “To stay positive, try keeping a gratitude journal. It’s a place where you and your family can write down five things each day that you’re grateful for that day. This is great to keep students of Christian schools humble and thankful during the holidays as well!”


Parents and Teachers: Hand-washing is vital. Talk about it whenever you can. Teach younger children to sing “The Happy Birthday Song” while they wash their hands to ensure they wash for an adequate amount of time. Teach good technique. This is important to encourage at home as often as it is encouraged at school. Education on germs and the spread of disease should happen in both places as well.


Parents: When conducting an annual physical for your child, make sure that questions about vaccines and immunizations are answered, and scheduled to take place if needed. Ask about emotional or physical warning signs that you should be monitoring for in your children. Make sure that you understand your child’s BMI in conjunction with weight and age, and if your kids fall into a healthy spectrum there. If you child is an athlete, make sure the pediatrician knows, and that you have all appropriate care/questions/protective gear covered in the checkup.


Teachers: Keep a baseline healthfulness in your curriculum. Can you incorporate activity into your classroom activities, even if it’s just kids standing up from their desks while answering questions? Perhaps a 2 minute yoga break to keep minds and bodies active? One quick relay race to perk up student energy? The more you can keep them active, the healthier their minds and bodies can be. If your budget does not include room for items like tissues, sanitary wipes or hand sanitizer, you may want to consider petitioning parents at the start of the school year for small objects to help keep the entire class healthy.


Parents: Make sure your kids eat nutritionally. A healthy immune system comes from a consistent diet of the right nutrients and vitamins. If you are concerned your child is lacking adequate vitamin intake, consider chewable (or even gummy) vitamins that kids may view as a treat.


Teachers: Ensure your classroom stays clean. Desks, door handles, and other heavily-touched surfaces need extra care from you or janitorial staff. Eat nutritionally and consume plenty of vitamins yourself, so as to not take cold and flu germs home with you. Educators are a role model for our children not just in moral and intellectual ways, so make sure that your habits match those you wish to see in the children in your classroom.


Parents and Teachers: Children should not be in the classroom while ill. Communicable diseases spread fast in closed environments, and a compromised immune system from a common cold might not seem like a big deal, but could mean a child contracts something even more serious if exposed. Parents need to manage care and stay-at-home options for children and not send them to school ill. Teachers need to send children home, or to the nurse’s office, at the first signs of illness, and make sure that parents know the rules of your classroom are firm.


Parents: Children need plenty of sleep. Ensure all throughout the school year that your children get enough rest. They need this for brain development and physical growth as well as a healthy immune system. The lists child needs as:


Age Recommended May be appropriate
Toddlers 1-2 years 11 to 14 hours 9 to 10 hours/15 to 16 hours
Preschoolers 3-5 years 10 to 13 hours 8 to 9 hours/14 hours
School-aged Children 6-13 years 9 to 11 hours 7 to 8 hours/12 hours
Teenagers 14-17 years 8 to 10 hours 7 hours/11 hours


Teachers: You need plenty of rest as well. Stress and sleeplessness can wear you down emotionally and spiritually and make you more vulnerable to illness yourself. Take care of your physical needs of sleep and rest.